Friction is a force between two surfaces when they are moving or sliding across each other. For example, when you try to push your hand across a table. Friction will make this difficult.
Friction works in the opposite direction to which the object is moving. Friction always slows a moving object down, and may even stop an object from moving.
The amount of friction depends the two surfaces.. The rougher the surface, the more friction, the smoother the surface, less friction.
Friction also produces heat. If you rub your hands together quickly, can you feel them get warmer?
The ways friction can help include:
preventing our shoes from slipping on the footpath when we walk
stopping car tyres from skidding on the road
allowing bicycle brakes to grip and slow or stop a turning wheel
Sometimes we want to reduce friction. For example, we use oil to reduce the friction between the moving parts inside a car engine. The oil holds the surfaces apart and can flow between them. The reduced friction means there is less wear on the car’s moving parts and less heat produced.
Ice causes very little friction, which is why it is easy to slip over on an icy day.
However, this is a good thing for ice skating and sledging.
What makes our bikes go? what makes them stop when we brake? Why do apples fall from trees?
After our experiments today watch this video and read through the following information.
You have probably heard the word “force” before. Here are a few examples: “the rocket had a lot of force at blast off” or “the force of the storm blew the roof off the building.” What is force? Force is defined as a push or pull on an object.
When your foot pushes against the pedal of your bike the push makes the wheels of the bike move. When an apple falls from a tree, it is pulled to the ground by gravity.
Forces affect how objects move. They may cause motion; they may also slow, stop, or change the direction of motion of an object that is already moving.
Force can change a number of things about an object. They include:
both direction and speed
Some examples of force changing the direction of an object.
A good soccer player can control the motion of a soccer ball by applying a force that changes the ball’s direction but not its speed.
Swinging a ball on a string around your head.
Some examples of force changing the direction and speed of an object.
A tennis player returning a very fast serve.
Starting on a swing.
Some examples of force changing the shape of an object.
‘The Macedonian recipes are very diverse. Thanks to the enormous number of ingredients that are found in this country. In Macedonian cusine we use everything, from fruits, vegetables and dairy products to the various types of meats. The originality of the Macedonian dishes is assured by the development of the cooking techniques and by the use of the local ingredients. The Macedonian cuisine contains recipes for each course of a meal: appetizers, soups, meat dishes, salads, vegetarian dishes, desserts and snacks.’
Step 2: clarify any unknown words –
diverse – Showing a great deal of variety; very different.
enormous – Very large in size, quantity, or extent
ingredients – Any of the foods or substances that are combined to make a particular dish.
cusine – a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, techniques and dishes
Step 3: (this is what not to do) replace any unknown words with my new understandings. If you do this you have not changed everything you have read into your own words –
‘The Macedonian recipes are very different. Thanks to the very large number of the foods or substances that are combined to make a particular dish that are found in this country. In Macedonian style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, techniques and dishes we use everything, from fruits, vegetables and dairy products to the various types of meats. The originality of the Macedonian dishes is assured by the development of the cooking techniques and by the use of the local ingredients. The Macedonian cuisine contains recipes for each course of a meal: appetizers, soups, meat dishes, salads, vegetarian dishes, desserts and snacks.
Step 3: (this is what you should do) write down some key points you remember from what you read (imagine you are telling someone what you read) –
big variety of foods
lots of different imgedients
many different recipes
Step 4: turn these main points into your own flowing paragraph, this is now in your own words –
The are a big variety of foods in Macedonia that you can make with lots of different ingredients which you can use to make lots of different recipes.
Your task is to find out about your families immigration story. For some of you, your parents or grandparents may have been the ones to immigrate to Australia. For others it will be someone further back in your family’s history. Students of indigenous background can research their family story to share with the class.
You final presentation will include the following items.
Write down key facts discovered about each of the countries you are from (i.e., special holidays celebrated, languages spoken, foods, traditions, traditional clothes, and flag) and locate the countries on a world map.
Choose at least five (grade 3s) or ten (grade 4s) questions to use in an interview with a family member (preferably the oldest available relative). Students must write/type out the interview in question/answer format.
Grade 4s must also record their interviews.
Include a couple of artefacts from their heritage.
Each artefact should include an explanation of why it is important. Artefacts can include photos, special clothing, toys, heirlooms, certificates, documents, or anything you and your family feel is relevant to your cultural history.
A recipe of a favourite dish from your heritage.
Biography (Grade 3) or Short Story (Grade 4)
Biography (Grade 3)
Write a short biography of the life of a relative who has emigrated from another country to Australia. Turn the facts you learnt in your interview into a short couple of paragraphs explaining the key events in your relative’s life. Think of the stories we have read in class as examples.
Short Story (Grade 4) Write a short narrative based on the life of a relative who has emigrated from another country to Australia. Think of the stories we have read in class as examples.
Use the questions below to plan your short narrative based on the life of a relative who has emigrated from another country to Australia:
How would you describe the main character?
What are the main events of the story?
When is this story set?
Where did the character come from?
Why did they leave their home to go to another country?
Where did they go (migrate) to?
What were their fears, hopes, joys?
What objects, skills, and stories from the past did they bring with them?
Choose at least five (grade 3s) or ten (grade 4s) questions to use in an interview with a family member (preferably the oldest available relative). You may choose to interview a family member about the life of an older family member, for example you may ask a parent about one of their grandparents who emigrated from another country.
When you are ready to conduct your interview, have the questions in front of you to make sure you are getting the information you want.
Make sure they are a balance of closed and open-ended questions
Take lots of notes
Conversations about family can go many directions; record any extra information shared
Below are some key questions you could ask. If you are asking a family member about and older family member just change the word you to they.
When did you come to Australia?
How old were you?
Did you come with family members or travel alone?
What form of transport did you take to come to Australia?
How long did the journey take?
What do you remember about the journey?
What were you able to bring with you?
Why did you decide to come to Australia?
What were your first impressions when you arrived?
Was it hard to settle into your new life?
What are your strongest memories of your country of origin?
Where do you call ‘home’?
Below are some extra questions you may choose from:
What is your full name? Why did your parents select this name for you? Did you have a nickname?
When and where were you born?
How did your family come to live there?
What was the house (apartment, farm, etc.) like? How many rooms? Bathrooms? Did it have electricity? Indoor plumbing? Telephones?
Were there any special items in the house that you remember?
What is your earliest childhood memory?
Describe the personalities of your family members.
What kind of games did you play growing up?
What was your favourite toy and why?
What was your favourite thing to do for fun (movies, beach, etc.)?
Did you have family chores? What were they? Which was your least favourite?
Did you receive an allowance? How much? Did you save your money or spend it?
What was school like for you as a child? What were your best and worst subjects? Where did you attend primary grade school? High school? University?
What school activities and sports did you participate in?
Do you remember any fads from your youth? Popular hairstyles? Clothes?
Who were your childhood heroes?
What was your religion growing up? What church, if any, did you attend?
What world events had the most impact on you while you were growing up? Did any of them personally affect your family?
Describe a typical family dinner. Did you all eat together as a family? Who did the cooking? What were your favourite foods?
How were holidays (birthdays, Christmas, etc.) celebrated in your family? Did your family have special traditions?
How is the world today different from what it was like when you were a child?
Who was the oldest relative you remember as a child? What do you remember about them?
What do you know about your family surname?
Is there a naming tradition in your family, such as always giving the firstborn son the name of his paternal grandfather?
What stories have come down to you about your parents? Grandparents? More distant ancestors?
Are there any stories about famous or infamous relatives in your family?
Have any recipes been passed down to you from family members?
Are there any physical characteristics that run in your family?
Are there any special heirlooms, photos, bibles or other memorabilia that have been passed down in your family?
What was the full name of your spouse? Siblings? Parents?
Where and when did you get married?
Why did you choose your children’s names?
What was your proudest moment as a parent?
What did your family enjoy doing together?
What was your profession and how did you choose it?
Your assignment is to design and construct a Colonial Australian Historical Artefact.
You will investigate, design and produce a model representing some aspect of life in early Australia. For inspiration check out paintings and pictures of that time, I’ve placed some below. What were people using, making or wearing? Think transport. shelter, clothing, tools.
Investigate and design
What information do you need to develop your design?
Make a list of questions you need to research.
Use simple mind maps, sketches and labelled diagrams to explore different design solutions.
Choose one design solution, draw a more detailed plan and make a list of materials required.
Record a list of design goals that’ll you use to evaluate your completed artefact.
Using your plan and list of materials construct your artefact.
Make ongoing modifications to your design and develop alternative solutions to fix any problems in your design.
Analysis and Evaluate
Present your finished Colonial Australian Historical Artefact to the rest of the class. Explain its various features and why you have included them into your design.
Explain the difficulties or problems that you had and how you worked to overcome them.
Evaluate your completed product using your list of design goals.